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Study on the Function of Intestinal Epithelial Cell and Its Isolation and Culture

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The interaction of the host-microbiome balance is essential for maintaininghomeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract[1].Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provide the front line of defense by building a barrier against pathogens and symbiotic microorganisms[2].The Structure of Intestinal Epithelial CellsIntestinal epithelial cells are found in crypts. IECs are mainly composed of transit-amplifying (TA) cells, Paneth cells, Microfold cells (or M cells), Enteroendocrine cells and Tuft cells[3]. These cells work together to maintain intestinal homeostasis. However, the loss of intestinal epithelial cells may damage intestinal stem cells (ISC) which makes the intestine unable to repair itself and leading to intestinal diseases[4].Fig 1. Schematic diagram of epithelial cell types and signaling pathways in crypts[3].Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) may contribute to local immunomodulatory. Therefore, successfully isolated and correctly cultured intestinal epithelial cells could provide a …

Biological Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines: 22Rv1, PC3, LNCaP

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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor and estimated to be the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. It is reported that the overall prostate cancer incidence annually declined 7% from 2011 to 2015.[1] However, PCa is still the first threat that endangers men’s health despite the continuous improvement of living standards and modern medical techniques. [2].Figure 1. Ten Leading Cancer Types for the Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex, United States, 2019. Ranking is based on modeled projections and may differ from the most recent observed data[1].Even though substantial researches on prostate cancer have been conducted, abundant in vivo and in vitro experiments are still required when exploring the mechanism of advanced cancer[3]. Therefore, it is crucial to grasp the biological characteristics of common prostate cancer cells. LNCaPPC3, and 22Rv1 were commonly used cell lines in the research of prostate cancer. The biological ch…

Leukopak, an Ideal Choice for Large-scale Research or Pre-clinical Trials instead of PBMC

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Human single cells are the key materials for research and production of cell therapy products. Yet, the purchase of fresh cells may be restricted, so there is an urgent need for suitable alternative cells that are viable and powerful[1].Leukopak is the product of this demand.What are Leukopaks and Leukapheresis?Leukopaks (LPs) are leukapheresis samples obtained from healthy peripheral blood [2]. Leukapheresis is a specially modified apheresis technique designed to remove leukocyte and return the remaining cells (i.e, granulocytes, platelets, red blood cells) to the donor. The operation of plasma leukopenia can be performed in vitro with a small amount of liquid (200-300mL of plasma). It is not necessary to perform plasma exchange and blood product perfusion before surgery. Therefore, this is an ideal method for obtaining blood components from participants without exposing them or their blood to other people’s substances[3].The percentage of cells can vary from donor to donor. As shown…