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Application of MDA-MB-series Cell Lines in Breast Cancer Research

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The Relationship between Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer CellsBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in developed countries[1]. The majority of breast cancer patients are over 50 years old. However, the result of new cases study shows that the number of breast cancer patients under 45 years old has exceeded 10%[2].Currently, most of the breast cancer knowledge comes from in vivo and in vitro studies using breast cancer cell lines because they can provide unlimited amounts of homologous self-replicating material using simple but standard media[3]. Therefore, it is essential to know whether these cell lines can capture molecules well before obtaining any clinically relevant results.Breast Cancer MDA-MB-series Cell Lines EstablishmentMDA-MB- series tumor cell lines were established from M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. They have created a total of 19 MDA-MB series of cell lines from female patients with breast cancer, of which sixteen (16) MDA-MB cell …

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells – Generation and Cultivation

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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent stem cells, derived by transducing a specific set of pluripotency-associated genes, or “reprogramming factors” into an adult cell type.These cells show qualities very similar to human embryonic stem cells. Since iPSCs derived directly from adult tissues, they have the potential to differentiate into tissues. This process not only bypasses the need for embryos but can be grown into tissue individually.How to generate iPSCs?There are multiple ways to generate iPSCs, including retrovirus or lentivirus-mediated gene transduction and chemical induction.The original set of reprogramming factors (also called Yamanaka factors) consists of the genes Oct4 (Pou5f1), Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, using a retroviral system. The retroviral vectors require integration into host chromosomes to express reprogramming genes, but DNA-based vectors and plasmid vectors do not generally integrate into the cell genome. At the same time, Thomson and colleagues de…

Research Progress of Microglial BV-2 in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Neurodegenerative Diseases and MicrogliaNeurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s diseases, and so on, were referred to chronic and progressive loss of neurons in the brain and activation of microglia in brain cells[1]. The symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases include memory loss, impaired executive function, personality changes, and progressive inability to perform daily activities[2].Microglia are immune cells in the central nervous system that mediate neuroinflammatory responses, which could perform immune monitoring, antigen presentation, and secretory regulatory immune molecules[3].However, excessive activation of microglia can severely damage brain tissue and cause various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD)[4]. As shown in figure 1, the microglia are activated in neurodegenerative diseases and express a large number of immune mediators such as IL-1β, TNFα, ROS, and NO. Microglial cells can be divided into two subtypes after a…