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Human Renal Cells

The renal system, also known as the urinary system, consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. These organs work in conjunction to eliminate metabolic waste products from the body by filtering approximately 200 liters of fluid per day. In addition, this system plays an essential role in the management of blood pressure and pH levels as well as the regulation of metabolites and electrolytes.   Researchers in the field of urinary disorders frequently utilize human primary cells to increase their understanding of the diseases that can affect this vital biological system. The use of these cells in laboratory and research settings is expected to grow in the coming years due to the unparalleled capacity of these biological products to replicate  in vivo  conditions while retaining high physiological relevance.   Primary Cells and Renal Disorders Human primary renal cells can yield insights into a variety of disorders affecting the urinary system, such as: Glomerulone

Regulators of gene expression: MicroRNAs

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Non-coding   RNA  a nd   Micro   RNA What is N on-coding   RN A? Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) refer to the RNAs that do not translate into proteins. There are many kinds of ncRNAs, and some of them play key roles in the physiological and pathological processes, such as  transfer RNAs  (tRNAs),  ribosomal RNAs  (rRNAs), multiple small RNAs (such as microRNAs,  siRNA s,  snRNA s, etc.), and some long non-coding RNAs[1, 2]. Many ncRNAs have not yet been discovered, and there are also many ncRNAs whose functions have not been determined or are useless[3, 4]. The first ncRNA to be characterized was alanine tRNA in 1965s [5], and the structure of tRNA was resolved in the 1970s ( Figure.1a ) [6, 7]. And then as more ncRNAs were discovered, the importance of ncRNAs was determined ( Figure.1b ). NcRNAs are involved in the pathological process of various diseases, including cancer[8], autism[9], Alzheimer’s disease[10], etc. Therefore, it is considered to be a potential target for the treatment of m

Bone Cancer and Bone Cancer Cell Lines

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Bone and Bone Cancer Bone The bone is a rigid organ that protects other organs and supports the body[1, 2]. There are about 300 bones in a newborn baby, and some of them will fuse during growth and development, and finally, 206 pieces are left in adulthood[3]. The main structures of bones include the outer cortex composed of dense bone[4], internal cortical bone[5], marrow[6], and cells[5]. Bones have a variety of functions, including a variety of mechanical functions[7], the Synthetic function of bone marrow ( hematopoiesis )[8], and are involved in body metabolism (such as mineral and fat storage,  pH balance regulation , detoxication, and calcium balance regulation). Besides, some diseases or injuries also occur in the bones, such as fractures, tumors, osteoporosis, etc.[9].     Figure.1  Microstructure of bone tissue   Tumor and  B one Cancer Bone has the possibility of tumorigenesis, which may affect the bones to a certain extent. Benign tumors are mostly primary tumors, including