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Mouse Primary Cells

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With the advancement of cell culture technology, the application of primary cells isolation and culture has gradually become common after the 2000s. Compared with the immortalized cell line, which can be cultured  in vitro  for a long time, the primary cells are closer to the actual physiological process  in vivo , especially in the project based on mouse models. Therefore, mouse primary cells became a more general choice for researchers in project design based on mouse models.   W hat are Primary Cell s ? Primary cells are freshly obtained from a multicellular organism and cultured  in-vitro  cells. Unlike immortalized cell lines, primary cells cannot be subcultured indefinitely due to senescent-phenotype-induced irreversible cell cycle arrest. The survival and growth of primary cells have higher requirements for culture substrates and nutrient conditions so that their applications are not popularized until the 21st century.   Primary cells present several advantages over immortalized

SH-SY5Y Cell Line Culture Protocol and Research Applications

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Background SH-SY5Y cells, the subline of the parental line SK-N-SH cells, are originally established from a bone marrow biopsy of a  neuroblastoma  patient with sympathetic adrenergic ganglial origin. SK-N-SH were subcloned three times: first to SH-SY, and then to SH-SY5, finally to SH-SY5Y. SH-SY5Y were deposited to the ATCC® in 1970 by June L. Biedler. Once the primary mammalian neurons derived from embryonic central nervous system tissue terminally differentiate into mature neurons, the cells can be no longer propagated. While the application of SH-SY5Y overcomes this limitation  [1] .   The SH-SY5Y cell line is a comparatively homogeneous neuroblast-like cell line, which exhibits neuronal marker  enzyme activity  (tyrosine and dopamine-β-hydroxylases), specific uptake of norepinephrine (NA), and expresses one or more neurofilament proteins. SH SY5Y cells also express opioid, muscarinic, and nerve growth factor receptors. In addition, SH-SY5Y cells are able to proliferate in culture

History and Classification of Human Leukemia Cell Lines

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Leukemia cell lines are important and widely used research tools. Their usefulness is mainly connected with their ability to provide an indefinite source of biological material for experimental purposes. Due to their high relevance for human disease, easy manipulation, and relative low costs, leukemia cell lines continue to represent vital  in vitro  model systems for a large range of ongoing investigations, especially basic leukemia research and drug discovery.   History of Human Leukemia cell lines In 1963, the first continuous human hematopoietic cell lines were established from Nigerian patients with  Burkitt’s lymphoma  by Pulvertaft at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria. The  cell line RAJI  is the best known culture of this series [1].   In 1970, the  K562  cell  line , the first hematopoietic cell line derived from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), was established from the pleural fluid of a patient with CML in blast crisis [2].   Furthermore, the availability of recombinant gro